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The Quantifiers (Miktar Belirticiler) konu anlatımı
Yazar Mesaj
eğitimsokağı Çevrimdışı


Mesajlar: -526
Üyelik Tarihi: 01-04-2009
Mesaj: #1
The Quantifiers (Miktar Belirticiler) konu anlatımı
THE QUANTIFIERS (Miktar Belirticiler)
1) İsimden once gelirler.
2) Geldikleri ismin çoğul, tekil yada sayılamayan olmasına göre yüklem alırlar.
3) Bazı niceleyiciler her zaman “of” ile kullanılırlar.
a couple of books (bir çift/bir-kaç kitap)
a majority of (the/my/these) books (Bu kitapların bir çoğunluğu)
a number of books (bir sürü kitap) plural
a lot of / lots of books / milk (bir sürü kitap/süt)
plenty of books / milk (bol miktarda kitap/süt) plural / uncountable
A good deal of milk (çok miktarda süt)
A great deal of milk (çok miktarda süt)
A great amount of milk (çok miktarda süt) uncountable

4) Bazı niceleyiciler of’lu ve of’suz kullanılma özelliğine sahiptirler. Bunlar of’lu iken zamirdirler.
All (of) my books / milk
Both (of) my books
Half (of) my books / milk / apple All books plural/uncountable
Both books plural
Half an hour/my books/this milk plural/singular/uncountable
Several of these books
Few of these books
A few of these books
Many of these books
Most of these books
Each of these books
Neither of these two books
Either of these two books
Some of these books
Any of these books
None of my books/milk plural/uncountable Several books plural
Few books plural
A few books plural
Many books plural
Most books plural
Each apple singular
Neither apple singular
Either apple singular
Some books plural
Any books plural
No book / milk / apple plural/singular/uncountable
A little of this milk
Little of this milk
Much of this milk A little milk uncountable
Little milk uncountable
Much milk uncountable

NOTE 1: Kendilerinden sonra gelen of’la birleşirken Possessive/demonstritive adjective/definite article’lardan birisi kullanılmalı. (of+my/this/the)
Some of the people (not some of people or some the people)
Most of these people (not most of people or most these people)
None of my teachers (not none of teachers or none my people)

NOTE 2: Bu quantifier’larda of ile sadece belirlenmiş isimler nicelenir. Tüm cins nicelenmek istendiğinde of’lu yapı kullanılmaz.
Some people (bazı insanlar) some of my people (halkımın bir kısmı)
most people (çoğu insan) Most of these people (bu insanların çoğu)
no teachers (hiçbir öğretmen) None of my teachers (öğretmenlerimin hiçbirisi)
all milk (tüm sütler) all of the mik (sütün tamamı)

5) Bazı niceleyiciler hiçbir zaman of almaz.
No milk/apple/books
every
No milk can be found round here. Many an apple (no one of yapılarak olur)
Every teacher can solve such a problem. (every one of yapılarak olur)
Many a man has died in the battle. (Epey bir adam savaşta öldü)
6) Niceleyicilerin başlarındaki “a” onları tekil yapamaz. Niceledikleri ismin durumuna göre yüklem tekil veya çoğul olur.
We have a lot of milk.
A couple of people have asked you.

7) Bazı niceleyiciler sadece tekil isimlerle kullanılırlar.
one apple
neither apple
either apple
each apple
every apple
many a(n) = a large number of Many a good man has been destroyed by alcoholic drink.
8) Bazıları sadece çoğullarla kullanılırlar.
two, three, etc
few / (quite) a few
both
a couple of
a (large) number of
several several books (birkaç kitap)
(a great/good) many
9) Bazıları sadece sayılamayanlarla.
A little/little
Much
A good/great deal of [a…deal of]
A vast quantity of [a…quantity of]
A great/large amount of [a…amount of] A little/little milk (biraz/az süt)
Much milk (çok süt)
A good/great deal of milk (çok bol miktarda süt)
A vast quantity of milk (çok bol miktarda süt)
A great/huge/large amount of milk (çok bol miktarda süt)
10) Bazıları hem sayılamayan hem de çoğullarla kullanılır.
None of
Some
Any
A lot of / lots of
Most
All
Plenty of None of the milk/books
Some milk/books
Any milk/books
A lot of/lots of milk/books
Most milk/books
All milk/books
Plenty of milk/books
11) Bazıları hem sayılamayan hem çoğul hem de tekillerle kullanılır.
no
half
all (informal, gramerce yanlış) No milk/books/apple
Half of the milk/books/apple
All of the milk/books
11) Bazıları yanlarında isim olmaksızın tek başlarına zamir olarak kullanılabilirler. Bkz madde 4. Bazıları daha çok nesne konumunda bulunur: a lot / lots, none
Some cars have four doors, but some have two. (…some of them have two)
A few of the shops were open but most were closed. (…most of them were closed.)
Half of this money is mine, and half is yours. (…half of it is yours.)

12) Üçü kendisinden sonra “of” kullanmaksızın the/this/my ‘lı cümlelerle birleşebilir.
All (of) the money Both (of) the teachers. Half (of) these people.
QUANTIFIERS IN DETAIL

A few and few – a little and little
çoğulkÞ sayılamayan isimler (uncountable) (a) few Þ1) (a) little isimler (plural)
2) a little = biraz [olumlu] little = (çok) az [olumsuz]
There is a little time before the train leaves. Let’s go and drink something.
There is little time to finish this project. We can never finish it in time.
3) a few = bir kaç few = (çok) az
I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends and we meet quite often.
I’m very bored here. I have few friends to talk and they are boring.
NOTE 1: Olumsuz anlam ile kastedilen nitelenenden isimden az miktarda olduğudur. Yoksa anlam pozitif olabilir.
She is lucky. She has few problems. (Şanslı. Çok az problemi var.)
I have a few problems. Things are not going so well for me. (Biraz problemim var. İşler benim için çok iyi gitmiyor.)
4) zamir olarak da kullanılır (alone, without a noun)
Many are called, but few are chosen.
Very little is known about him.
Do you speak English? – A little (biraz,konuşabilirim) / Little (çok az, konuşamam)
Do you have some biscuits? – A few (biraz, sana verebilirim). / Few. (çok az sana veremem)
5) of + my, this, the kuralına dikkat
A few of his visitors left early. (A few his visitors.)
Few of Picasso’s pictures are good. (Few Picasso’s pictures)
Can I take a little of this sugar? (a little this sugar)
Little of the original building has survived. (Little the original building)
extra: “little” aynı zamanda küçük anlamında bir sıfattır.
A little girl wants to see you. (Küçük bir kız sizi görmek istiyor.)
extra: “the few” az miktarda insan, birkaç kişi anlamına gelen bir zamirdir.
Real power belongs to the few. (Gerçek güç az miktarda insana aittir.)
She was one of the chosen few. (O kız seçilmiş birkaç kişiden biriydi)

A couple of (=a few)
1) Bir çift anlamı yanında bir kaç kişi anlamına da gelir.
I need a couple of eggs (=two eggs) for this.
We’re going out to a restaurant with a couple of friends (=a few friends).
2) Belirli bir isimde niceleme yaptığında the/my/these kullanılır.
A couple of my friends;
NOTE : Couple aynı zamanda çift, hayat arkadaşı gibi anlamlara gelir.
a married couple a partner couple

Some and Any
1) some = in positive sentences, for plural and uncountable
any = in negative sentences and questions, for plural and uncountable
We bought some flowers/sugar
We didn’t buy any flowers/sugar.
He’s busy. He’s got some work to do.
He’s lazy. He never does any work.
Do we have any flowers/sugar?

NOTE:
Sorularda çoğunlukla any kullanılır.
Have you got any luggage? No, I haven’t.
Has anybody seen my bag? Yes, it is under the table.

Some : Fakat beklenen cevap yes ise veya eğer soruda rica veya davet var ise some kullanılır. (request, encouraging or giving an invitation)
Would you like something to eat? (teklif, offer)
Can I have some sugar, please? (rica, request)
Could I have some books, please?
Why don't you take some books home with you?
Would you like some books?

NOTE 1: Some ve any’nin –body, -thing, –one ve -where kombinasyonları da any ve some’ın dahil olduğu kurallara dahildirler.
I’m hungry. I want something to eat.
I’m not hungry. I don’t want anything to eat.
There’s somebody at the door.
There isn’t anybody at the door.
Has anyone seen my glasses anywhere?

NOTE 2: Manayı olumsuzlaştıran bazı preposition, zarf, fiil ve sıfatlarda any kullanılır.
Without:
We went out without any money.
barely, hardly, never, rarely, scarcely, seldom
Hardly anybody passed the examination.(Hemen hiçkimse sınavı geçmedi)
deny, fail, prohibit, refuse, etc
He refused to eat anything. (=He didn’t accept to eat anything)
impossible, unlikely:
It is impossible to see any good view in this city.
If clause
If there are any letters for me, can you send them on this address?
If anyone has any questions, I’ll be pleased to answer them.
Let me know if you need anything.
Manada koşulluk varsa;
I’m sorry for any trouble I’ve caused. (=If I have caused any trouble I am sorry) (Neden olduğum herhangi bir problem varsa özür dilerim)



2) any + singular (positive cümlelerde): hangisi olursa olsun anlamında (herhangi bir…)
You can catch any bus. They all go to the theatre.
“Which sang shall I sing?” “Any song. I don’t mind.”
Come and see me any time you want.
Any of the students could have answered this question.
3) some + singular/plural person: kim olduğu belli değil. (-‘nın biri, birtakım…)
Some kind person sent me those flowers. (Kibar adamın biri bana bu çiçekleri göndermiş)
Some woman just stole my purse. (Kadının biri demin cüzdanımı çaldı)
Some people were playing ball. (Birtakım insanlar dışarıda top oynuyorlardı)
NOTE : Some ayrıca aşağıdaki anlamlarda da kullanılır.
Some people don’t like tea. (Bazı insanlar çay sevmezler)
The talks went on at some length. (Görüşmeler epey sürdü.) [adv]
You must run some to catch up. (Yetişmek için epey koşmalısın) [adv]
Some ten people were hired. (Yaklaşık on insan tutuldu.) [adv]
4) somebody / anybody ve someone / anyone tekil yüklem, çoğul zamir (they/them/their etc) alırlar.
Someone has forgotten their umbrella. (Birileri şemsiyesilerini unutmuş)
If anybody wants to leave early, they can. (Ayrılmak isteyenler varsa, ayrılabilirler)
NOTE: of + my/the/this kuralına dikkat
Some of my parents. Any of your food.
Some of parents (Yanlış) Any of food (Yanlış)
Some my parents (Yanlış) Any your food (Yanlış)
No and None (No vs Any)
1) no, nothing, nobody, none of… kullanılan cümlede –not- yer almaz. Any kullanılan cümlede aynı anlamı karşılamak için –not- eklenmelidir.
I did not say anything = I said nothing.
We haven’t got any money = We have got no money.
The station isn’t anywhere near here. = It is nowhere near here.
2) none = no one demektir. Ancak no one sadece sayılabilenlerle kullanılırken, none sayılamayanlarla da kullanılır. No one of ise sadece çoğullarla kullanılır.
None of your friends No one of your fiends. (doğru)
None of this money no one of this money (yanlış)
“How much money have you got?” “None.” (no one değil)
"I'd like some more cheese." "I'm sorry there's none left". (no one değil)
3) None of’tan sonra çoğul bir isim geldiğinde yüklem tekil de çoğul da olabilir. Ancak sayılamayan isim geldiğinde sadece tekil isim kullanılır. [None of + my books are/is]
None of the shops were/was open.
None of my children has/have blonde hair.
None of your money is able to help me. (Her zaman tekil, zira money bir SAYILAMAYAN isimdir)
4) “Nobody” ve “no one” tekil yüklem, ancak çoğul zamir (they/their/them etc) ister.
Nobody phoned, did they?
Is there nobody here who can answer my question?
No one in the class has done their homework.
5) None zamir olarak kullanılabilir. (Alone, without noun)
She searched the shelves for books on yoga, but could find none. (=NO ONE)
She went to the shop to get some oranges but they had none. (=NO ONE)
6) "no of” diye bir kullanım yoktur, yerine “none of” kullanılır.
None of your friends no of your friends (Yanlış)
Much and Many
1) Much, sayılamayan (uncountable), many ise çoğul (plural) isimlerle kullanılır, çokluk belirtirler. Normalde soru cümlelerinde ve olumsuz cümlelerde yer alırlar. Olumlularda yerlerine a lot of veya lots of kullanılır. Ancak resmi (formal) ifadelerde olumlu cümlelerde de kullanılmaktadırlar.
Many people eat too much meat.
2) Much of + tekil isim (singular noun) büyük bir kısmı (a large part of ) anlamına gelir.
Much of the national park was destroyed in the fire. (Milli Parkın büyük bir kısmı yangında mahvoldu)
3) Ardından isim gelmeksizin de zamir olarak kullanılırlar (Alone, without noun)
Many have argued that she is the finest poet of her generation.
Much remains to be done before the drug can be used with humans.
4) of+the/my/this kuralına dikkat
Many of the delegates voted the policy. (Many the delegates…)
extra 1: a great many = very many
I have known her for a great many years. (Onu epey çok bir zamandır tanıyorum)
extra 2: the many = the majority (çoğunluk)
A government which improves conditions for the many (koşulları çoğunluk için geliştiren bir hükümet)
Such and So
so sıfat ve zarfları, such ise isimleri nitelemek için kullanılır. Ancak herhangi bir isim many/much/few/ little ile nitelenmişse burada so kullanılır.
[so + many/much/few/little + Noun]
I haven’t eaten so much food before.
I don’t want to take so many cars nowadays.
fakat
I haven’t seen such a bike before. (Daha önce böylesi bir bisiklet görmemiştim)
I haven’t seen such cars before. (Daha önce böyle arabalar görmemiştim)
I have never met such a beautiful girl before. (Daha önce bu kadar güzel bir kızla karşılaşmamıştım)
veya
I have never worked so hard before. (Daha önce asla bu kadar sıkı çalışmamıştım)
so
how
as
too adj a noun
She is so beautiful. (O kadar güzelki-Çok güzel)
He was so good a man. (O kadar iyi bir adamdı ki..)
A Lot of / Lots of and Plenty of
1) Her üçü de hem sayılamayan hem de çoğullar ile kullanılır, a lot of / lots of çokluk, plenty of bolluk (more than enough) belirtir. (a lot of, lots of ile kıyaslandığında daha resmi=formaldır.)
A lot of luck lots of time plenty of money
A lot of friends lots of people plenty of ideas
2) “lots” veya “a lot” şeklinde zamir olarak (genellikle cümle sonunda) veya yüklem sonrasında zarf olarak kullanılırlar. (Alone, without a noun) plenty de zamir olarak kullanılır.
I have had plenty to eat. I don’t want any more.
“Have you got any small nails?” “Yes. I have got a lot lots” (pron)
I care a lot about you. (Seni çok umursuyorum) (adv) [a lot=very much]
Thanks a lot for your help. (Yardımların için çok sağol) (adv) [a lot=very much]
extra: the lot/the whole lot = tamamı, bir bütün olarak anlamında bir isimdir.
Get out of my house, the lot of you! (Defolun evimden, hepiniz!)
She has a got a PC, colour printer, scanner –the lot. (Bir PC’si var, renkli yazıcı, tarayıcı; yani bir bütün)
All, Both and Half - All vs the Whole
plural, uncountableÞ1) all singularÞthe whole
All cars have wheels.(tekerlek)
All (of) the milk has finished by someone.
The whole of the field was flooded.(not all of the field…but getting common.)
2) Both, all ve half belirlenmiş bir ismi (themythis almış) nitelerken “of” ile veya “of”suz olabilirler.
All (of) my friends. Half (of) this money. Both (of) the sentences.
All
Both
half of Them
It
Us
you
Ancak nitenen şey nesne konumunda bir zamirse (them, us etc) “of” kullanılmalıdır.
All of us like you.(doğru) All us like you. (yanlış)
Half of them appreciate the thing you have done. (not Half them appreciate…)
3) Kendisinden sonra relative clause geliyorsa; all=everything veya all=the only thing anlamına gelir.
I don’t agree all that she said.(everything) (Söylediği herşeyle hemfikir değilim.)
All she wants to do is help. (Yapmak istediği tek şey yardım idi.)
4) whole+plural name cümleye bir kısmı tamamıyla anlamı katar.
All of the towns had their electricity cut off. (Bölgedeki tüm kasabaların elektriği kesildi)
After the storm, whole towns were left without electricity. (Fırtınadan sonra, bazı kasabalar tamamıyla elektriksiz kaldı)
5) Aşağıdaki alternatif both ve all kullanım şekillerine dikkat
a) All ve both mid position’da bulunuyorsa, özneyi niteliyordur.
We are all going to Athens during the vacation. (All of us are…)
Do you all want this cake? (Do all of you…)
They have both finished their dinner. (Both of them have finished…)
Are you both going to the conference? (Are both of you…)
b) All ve both of almaksızın the/my/this grubuyla kulanılabilirler ama bu gruptan önce gelmelidirler.
All their hard work had been of no use. (not Their all hard work…)
All these inventions are my products. (not These all inventions…)
Both your sisters love you. (not Your both sisters…)
Both these two brothers are married. (not These both two brothers…)
c) All ve both zamirden sonra gelerek onu niteleyebilirler.
People will want to see them all. (…see all of them)
I went on holiday with them both. (…with both of them.)
Both / Neither / Either
1) Her zaman iki şey için kullanılırlar:
Both restaurants are very good.
Neither restaurant is expensive.
We can go to either restaurant.
2) (neithereither) +of+ (themythis) + plural Noun (her zaman iki tane kastedilir)
Neither of the restaurants we went to waswere expensive.
These are two types of qualification. Either of them is acceptable.
3) Zamir olarak kullanılırlar. (Alone without a noun)
Which do you want? Both neither either
4) 2’denè2 şey, buna karşılık aynı anlamda any, none, all èeither, neither, both fazla şey
There are two good hotels in the town. You can stay at either of them. (not…any of them)
There are many good hotels in the town. You can stay at any of them. (not…either of them)
We tried two hotels. Neither of them had any rooms. Both of them were full. (not…none of them) (not…all of them)
We tried a lot of hotels. None of them had any rooms. All of them were full. (not…neither of them) (not…both of them)
5) Paralel yapılar: Bu tür yapılarda ilk ne tür bir yapı gelmişse, daha sonra da aynı tür gelmelidir. (both+noun+…and+noun veya both+adj…and+adj gibi)

Both…and…
hem…hem de Both Ann and Tom were late.
I was both tired and hungry when I arrived.
Neither…nor…
ne…ne de Neither Liz nor Robin came to the party.
Neither my sister nor my brothers like chocolate.
Neither my brothers nor my sister likes chocolate.
She said she would contact me but she neither writed to me nor phoned.
Either… or…
Ya…ya da… I’m not sure where he’s from. He’s either Spanish or French.
Either you apologize or I’ll never speak to you again.

Each / Every
1) each/every her ikisi de singular noun ve singular verbÞ
Each/every time I see you, you look different. (Seni her gördüğümde farklı gözüküyorsun)
There is a phone in every/each room of the house. (Evin her/her bir odasında bir telefon var)
2) each of +mythethis+noun ancak “every of” diye birşey yok. Bunun yerine every one kullanılır.
Each of the books has a different color. (Herbir kitabın ayrı bir rengi var)
Every one of the books has a different color.
Each of them you us etc.
Every one of them you us etc.
3) Each her zaman nitelediği isimden önce gelmez. Özneyi nitelerken yüklem öncesinde veya cümle sonunda gelebilir. Ancak bu kez nitelediği isim çoğuldur. “Every” bu şekilde kullanılamaz.
Each student was given a book.
The students were each given a book.
The students were given a book Each orange costs 25 pense. each.
These oranges each cost 25 pense.
These oranges costs 25 pense each.

4) Every bir şeyin ne kadar sık gerçekleştiğini ifade etmek için çoğul ifadelerle kullanılır:
The buses go every ten minutes. (Otobüsler her on dakikada bir kalkarlar)
We had to stop every ten miles. (Her on milde bir mola vermek zorunda kaldık.)
One in every three marriages ends in divorce. (Her üç evlilikten biri boşanmayla sonuçlanıyor)
Extra: every other: birinci, üçüncü, beçinci vs… ama ikinci, dördüncü, altıncı vs… değil.
Every other day: gün aşırı (iki günde bir) every other week: bir hafta değil bir hafta (iki haftada bir)
A Number of vs. The Number of
the number of = sayısı anlamına gelirken, a number of çoğullardan önce kullanılır, çokluk belirtir.
A number of people have just gone to Paris from Adana by air. (Bir sürü insan hava yoluyla Adana’dan Parise demin geldi.)
The number of the people who went to Paris from Adana are not known yet. (Adana’dan Paris’e giden insanların sayısı henüz bilinmiyor.)
Enough
1) Sayılamayan ve çoğul isimlerden önce gelir ve “yeterince” anlamı katar.
Have you made enough copies? (Yeterince kopya ürettin mi?)
Is there enough room for me? (Benim için yeterince boş yer var mı?)
2) Eğer bir sıfat veya zarfı niteliyorsa bunlardan sonra gelir. Bu zarf olan enough’tır.
This house isn’t big enough for us. (big→ sıfat)
You are not working hard enough to finish this project in time. (hard→ zarf)
3) Zamir olarak yalnız başına kullanılabilir. (alone, without a noun)
Sixs bottles should be enough.
If enough of you are interested, we’ll organize a trip to the theatre.
3) have had enough of ST bıkkınlık belirtir.
I have heard enough of that music. (Bu müziği yeterince dinledim)
Graded Quantifiers
Bazıları derecelendirilirler.
Many more most (çoğul)
Much more most (sayılamayan)
Few fewer fewest (çoğul)
Little less least (sayılamayan)
What-Which
1) What ve which tekil, çoğul veya sayılamayan isimlerden önce gelirler. WHAT: ne, hangi;
WHICH: hangi
What kind of music do you like? (Ne/Hangi tür müzik seversin?)
What job does he do? (Ne iş yapıyor?)
Which way is the wind blowing from? (Rüzgar hangi yönden esiyor?)
2) What sıfat+isim’den önce ünlem olarak kanaat belirtmek için kullanılır.
What a beautiful house! (Ne güzel bir ev!)
What awful weather! (Ne korkunç bir hava!)
Kendisinden sonra cümle gelir
What a spoiled girl she was! (Ne kadar şımarık bir kızdı!)
What interesting books you have! (Ne kadar ilginç kitapların var!)

3) Which « of » ile de kullanılır. İsim çoğul olmalı ve the/my/these almalı. Yüklem tekilin veya çoğulun kastedilmesine bağlı olarak şekillenir. (which of the/my/these Pl Noun is/are)
Which of the applicants has got the job? (İşi başvuranlardan hangisi aldı?)
Which of the patients have recovered? (Hastalardan hangileri iyileşti?)
PREDETERMINER
Determinerlerin konumu ile ilgili olarak şu iki şeyi bilmek lazımdır:
1. İsim nitelendiğinde hep ilk sırada, yani isme en uzak noktada olurlar.
my friend [det + Noun]
my smart friend [det+adj+Noun]
my extremely smart friend [det+adv+adj+Noun]
2. İki determiner yan yana kullanılmaz. Ancak predeterminerler determinerları niteleyebilirler:
all
both
half Have you drunk all (of) the milk?
I had to use all my powers of persuasion to get her to agree.
Remember all that trouble we had with the police last year?
Both my parents are teachers.
Roughly half (of) the class are Spanish and the others are a mixture of nationalities.
… times double
twice
treble
quadruple My foot swelled up to three times the normal size when it was stung by a wasp.
Electrical goods are almost double the price they were a few years ago.
He's twice her size (= much bigger than she is).
He earns almost treble the amount that I do.
We have had quadruple the number of applicants we expected.
quite
rather There was quite a lot of traffic today but yesterday was even busier.
I've got rather a lot of work to do at the moment.
such
what It seems like such a long way to drive for just one day.
I'd put on such a lot of weight that I couldn't get into my trousers.
"She can't come." "What a shame/pity."
What a lovely view!
27-12-2009 13:10
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