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Beyoğlu'nun İngilizce Tanıtımı
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beyoğlu , nun , ingilizce , tanıtımı

Konu: 3,930
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Kıdem: 01-04-2009

Beyoğlu is a district located in İstanbul Turkey separated from the old city by the Golden Horn. It encompasses other neighborhoods north of the Golden Horn including Galata and is connected to Old İstanbul by the Galata Bridge.

The area that is now known as Beyoğlu has been inhabited for millennia and records exist showing that a settlement existed on the northern shore of the Golden Horn since the time of Christ. As the Byzantine Empire grew so did Constantinople and it's environs. Modern-day Beyoğlu was considered a suburb of Byzantium as early as the 5th century. It was around this time that the area began to be called Galata and saw a fortress built in its vicinity by Emperor Theodosius II. It would also later house European merchants who would construct the Galata Tower in what was then known as Pera. In 1273 Pera was given to the Republic of Genoa by the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus in return for Genoa's support of the Empire after the Fourth Crusade and the sacking of Constantinople. Pera became a flourishing trade colony ruled by a Podestà. It remained under Genoese control until May 29 1453 when it was conquered by the Ottomans along with the rest of the city after the Siege of Constantinople.

Its association with Europeans did not end with the Ottoman conquest. During the 19th century it was home to many European traders and housed many embassies. The presence of so many Europeans made it the more modernized part of İstanbul especially when compared to the Old City and allowed for influxes of modern technology fashion and arts. ThusBeyoğlu was one of the first parts of İstanbul to have telephone lines electricity trams municipal government and even an underground railway the Tünel.

The rapid modernization taking place in Europe and which was leaving Turkey behind was symbolized by the differences between Beyoğlu and its neighboring districts across the Golden Horn. When the Ottoman sultans finally began a modernization program they began building numerous buildings in Beyoğlu that mixed traditional Ottoman styles with newer European ones. In addition the sultan stopped living in Topkapi Palace and built a new palace near Beyoğlu called Dolmabahçe Palace. During the Republican Period Beyoğlu went into gentle decline a process which accelerated after violence against non-Muslim minorities in 1955 and after the invasion of Cyprus in 1974. The widespread political violence between leftist and rightist groups which afflicted Turkey in the late 1970s affected the area particularly badly and accelerated the decline with middle-class flight to newer suburban areas such as Levent and Yeşilköy. By the late 1980s many of the previously grand apartment blocks were home to penniless immigrants from rural Anatolia and many of the shop fronts on Istiklâl Caddesi were boarded up. Howeverbeginning in the early 1990s a conscious programme of urban renewal began which brought large numbers of young professionals back into the area and revitalised the main shopping artery.

Present day
Modern day Beyoğlu is a center of tourism and an important part of İstanbul. Istiklâl Caddesi runs through the areaterminating at Taksim Square. Throughout Beyoğlu there are many cafés restaurants cinemas and bars along with being home to many foreign consulates the British and German consulates being amongst the most impressive buildings in the area. Due to the close proximity of Western consulates in this area and the cosmopolitan atmosphere of the area in general there are also a large number of foreign people of all nationalities. The area is also home to significant Turkish Christian and Jewish communitiesand contains a broad social mix as a result of gentrification.

Among the more notable buildings in the area is the Pera Palace hotel a hotel built in 1892 by George Nagelmackers. Agatha Christie wrote her most famous novel there Murder on the Orient Express and her room is still conserved as a museum. Beyoğlu also has many historical Mosques Tekkes and Turbes and several Sufi orders such as the Cihangiri (pronounced Djihangiri) order were founded here. Neve Şalom synagogue(Neve Shalom Synagogue) a center of Istanbul's Jewish community is also found here.

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